Updating Charts is a Bit of a Mess

Globally the whole business of updating charts is in a bit of a mess at the moment and probably will be for a while. Most national hydrographic offices are fairly well set up for maintaining their paper portfolios. This is no great surprise as some of them have been in this business for a century or more. However with the advent of electronic charts a lot of things have to change. The whole production process needs to be reorganised (not cheap) and some of the basic ways of thinking about charts have to change.

Raster charts are commonly produced as facsimiles of the paper charts. In a simplistic system they are literally scanned from the paper originals. This can give rise to inaccuracies for a range of reasons not least of which are distortions in the paper and non-linearity in the scanner. Scanning at a resolution appropriate to the electronic chart can cause a rather jagged appearance which is most noticeable in diagonal lines and known as aliasing. The raster chart has far fewer dots (pixels) than the corresponding paper chart and this can compromise appearance. A better production method is to create the raster image from the same electronic chart images used to drive the paper printing process. There are still some issues here with re-projection which need to be handled correctly but in general this is a cleaner and more accurate process. It also allows image processing such as anti-aliasing which gives a better visual impression when the electronic chart is displayed.

In either production technique the updating of the raster charts follows on more or less naturally from the time served paper chart update process. It is then common for the vector charts to be produced from the raster data, more or less indirectly from the paper chart production mechanism. At the end of the update chain are the third party chart producers who copy the official data sets and repackage them in a variety of ways. Quite naturally these are the last types of charts to get updated.

But this is all changing because this is not a good way to handle vector data and vector data is the future. It is a separate issue as to why vector charts are the future or whether it is the right future but for now it definitely is the future. The IHO and other august bodies are committed to this and substantial funds are being invested. This matters because creating vector data from paper charts is just not a good way of doing things.

In the vector world everything is an ‘object’ like a light or a depth contour or a traffic lane. Each object has ‘attributes’ like the color red or a certain depth. Each object also has a position (the ‘vector’) so it is represented as a point, a line or an area. These objects can be quite readily managed in a simple database but the natural way of organising them is to tie them more directly to the raw survey data. So when a report is received that a new wreck has been found it is just entered into the database – no intervening chart required.

Vector charts are now a cinch to produce. A cell is just a collection of all the objects in a given geographical area. The problem of actually displaying the chart data is palmed off to the ECDIS or ECS. Paper charts and raster charts are a bit more problematical because the traditional role of the cartographer has been taken out of the loop. Have you ever wondered why a modern chart display simply just does not look as good as a paper chart? Well this is why, there is no longer a cartographer involved to lay out the chart and make it look ‘just so’. Instead we have a dumb computer, and they are all dumb, attempting to reproduce the sort of work that takes a human many years of training and experience. It just doesn’t work so well.

Now to be fair the automated vector to raster production processes are getting better but none the less there is still a complete role reversal. The raster chart becomes a second class citizen to the vector chart and the paper chart ends up at the bottom of the pile. Instead of being the primary focus for updates it becomes the last. There are undoubtedly many advantages with vector charts and with paper charts generated from vector databases. However, for the foreseeable future, they are never going to match the visual quality of the charts that have become standard fare for the mariner for many years.

Last in the chain will always be the third party chart producers. Fortunately as their update feeds become predominantly more electronic (just another output from the database) then these updates should become more timely. Ultimately they should be able to match the official charts for accuracy.

Just now we are in a great transition phase. Some hydrographic offices are pushing ahead with vector only systems while others just deal with traditional paper charts. Most are somewhere in between and possibly a bit unsure of which way to go or how it is all going to shake out. Meanwhile the mariners can look forward to improved electronic charts coverage and more rapid updating. They can also anticipate charts which do not look so good and which, in some cases, are going to cost more. Maybe this is just a classic engineering compromise.

3 Ways Charts Focus On Goals

Successful organizations achieve their goals. Unsuccessful organizations do not. What makes successful organizations successful is the ability to keep everyone in the organization focused on the goals. This focus helps them make decisions and keep their actions focused on achieving the goal.

There are three ways charts can be used to help your organization achieve its goals.

  1. Analyzing and defining your goals
  2. Presenting your goals
  3. Providing the feedback

Charts force you to convert your goals from platitudes to Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Converting your strategies and tactics and other actions into KPIs allows you to show their impact on your goals.

Charting the of your goals makes them real to your team. Charts show your attention to the application resources on strategies and actions that impact your goals. The focus also reduces the resources committed to actions that don’t affect your goals.

Having clearly identified goals does not by itself drive results. You need to communicate your goals. You need to show your business units, what their targets are. You may need to show your investors and creditors what you’re doing to achieve your goals.

The charts presenting specific KPIs measuring your goals and the actions you’re taking to your goals fill this need. A different set of charts can be presented to each audience allowing the focus to give them exactly what they need to see.

Finally, if you want to encourage people to continue focus on goals, you have to provide them with feedback. The same charts you used to communicate your goals and actions to reach them become a tool for reinforcing focus on your goals.

Using weekly, monthly and quarterly updates on performance let your team know you are paying attention. The result is a renewed focus on your goals.

The flexibility of charts allows you to fine tune your feedback. You can tweak your charts as needed to adapt them for different business units within the organization. The result is more specific and relevant feedback to each business unit. This approach is far more effective than broadcasting a general set of feedback reports or charts.

So,, if you want to improve your organization’s performance convert your numbers to charts. Use charts to identify your goals and tactics. Communicate your goals and relevant KPIs through charts. And chart ongoing performance against your goals and tactics to give targeted specific feedback to each business unit within your organization. Use charts for all three purposes and you will increase your organization’s ability to achieve goals.

Prominent Tour & Travel Companies Are Enlisting Entire Singapore Hotel List in Its Business Chart

Singapore is a lusty vibrant island. It is known as one of the most controlled democracy. One should not dare to play with authority or try to engage in drug trafficking which may turned into the death penalty. It is the perfect business city. It has been widely recognized for excellent business and social infrastructure centre. It is politically stable and has favorable economic ties with world economies.

Such global reputation has encouraged several tour & travel company to enlist entire Singapore hotel list in its business chart. Hotels list Singapore is based upon several factors like locality, hotel rating and so on. This island-state is located in the Southeast Asia region and nicely connected with Malaysia by bridges. It is very much influenced with Indian, Chinese and Malay culture as well as influenced with tropical climate. There are endless things to do while you are on the trip to Singapore.

Shopping is a heavenly experience in Singapore. The well designed and colossally built shopping malls in the centre of Singapore are prominently inducing the shopaholics. Usually, stores are open seven days in a week from 10AM to 10 PM. Shops in Orchard Road and Scotts Road remains open till midnight. One can get verities of food in Singapore special quality verity can be found in Malay, Chinese, Indian, Thai, Japanese, French, Italian, American and other foods. Hawker centers can be marked as the cheapest and most liked places to eat. Hence, if one has dream to explore the dynamic Singapore then it is right time to embody the dream. The list of hotels in Singapore is available in verities of ranges from cheap budget hotels to luxury star hotels.

Strategically located Singapore is a sample of perfect amalgamation of wealth and diverse style of architecture. The brilliance of Singapore lays in the sincerity towards implementation the best of west with the flavor of the orient. It is a perfect recreational area which offers myriad of attractions for all age groups. Such attractions may be named as Butterfly Park, insect kingdom and dolphin lagoon. There are several important spots in Singapore like Sentosa Island, Jurong Bird Park, Chinatown, the Asian Civilization Museum and the various temples and churches which are prime attractions of the city.

Thus, one must visit once to explore the amazing mixture of age old civilization and beliefs and modern, contemporary styles where nature and progressive achievements are setting an example of fine compatibility.